How Do Drugs Affect the Skeletal System?
The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones, as well as a network of tendons, ligaments, and the cartilage that connects them. The skeletal system’s main function is to form a solid framework that supports and protects the body’s internal organs and anchors the skeletal muscles. The skeletal system’s vital functions also include movement, blood cell production, calcium storage, and endocrine regulation.1 All of these functions are vital for survival.
Addiction is a disease, and it is a disease that can affect the skeletal system in several harmful ways. In particular, drugs affect bone in ways that can have a lasting impact. The effects of drug abuse on the skeletal system depend a lot on the drug being abused. Some drugs are more harmful than others. Unfortunately, a person who is addicted to drugs may not realize the harm they are doing to the skeletal system until the damage is already done.
Some of the effects of drug abuse on the skeletal system include:
- Poor bone density
One of the more common effects of drug abuse on the bones is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a prevalent disease that involves the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and may disappear completely. While it is most common in the elderly, osteoporosis can affect people at any age if they are long-term drug users. Many drug users typically go without eating for long periods of time, and when they do eat, they are not following a nutritious diet. Because of these bad habits, many drug addicts struggle with malnutrition, and this can lead to drug-induced osteoporosis. In particular, opioids and meth often lead to osteoporosis. A study on meth users found that 22% met the criteria for osteoporosis compared to 10.3% of the general population.2,3
Osteoporosis is a particularly common effect of drug abuse from meth, opioids, nicotine, antidepressants, and cocaine.
Osteomyelitis is a bone infection that has been found in as many as 59% of patients with a history of IV drug use.4
This infection is commonly associated with the use of dirty needles and contaminated drugs.
Osteomyelitis is a particularly common effect of drug abuse from meth and heroin.
One of the biggest impacts of drug abuse on the skeletal system involves changes in bone density. Several drugs affect bone density, and poor bone density is often the start of more serious issues like osteoporosis. Both prescription drugs and illegal drugs can affect bone density. While decreased bone density is often linked to malnutrition, some specific drugs have also been linked to a decrease in bone density because of the way they interact with the body.
Lowered bone density is a particularly common effect of drug abuse from meth, nicotine, cocaine, antidepressants, and opioids.
One of the biggest effects of drug abuse on joints is arthritis. Arthritis is inflammation in joints that comes in several different forms, including osteoarthritis and rheumatic conditions relating to gout, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis.5
The presence of an early substance use disorder can often double the chances that arthritis will develop.6
Arthritis is a particularly common effect of drug abuse from meth and prescription medications. It may also lead to misuse and addiction to prescription painkillers. Opioid addiction treatment
could help the addict quit.
How Does Alcohol Affect the Skeletal System?
While illicit and prescription drugs affect the skeletal system in various ways, alcohol affects the skeletal system as well. Alcohol consumption, especially excessive alcohol consumption associated with alcoholism, can lead to health problems with bones and joints.
The effects of alcohol abuse on bones and the skeletal system include:
- Poor bone density
- Problems with calcium & vitamin D
- Worsened Arthritis
Osteoporosis & Poor Bone Density
Just like some abused drugs, alcohol abuse can lead to osteoporosis. Although some research suggests that moderate drinking may be connected to a favorable effect on bone density and a decreased risk of osteoporosis, heavy drinking is associated with lowered bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis.7
Problems with Calcium & Vitamin D
A precursor to osteoporosis, alcohol has also been found to interfere with vitamin D production that is needed for calcium absorption. The result is that the body often has lower levels of calcium than it should, and the bones may suffer.8
Along with the damage to bones, the effects of alcohol on the skeletal system include joint problems. While moderate drinking may actually reduce some inflammation, excessive alcohol and joint pain may be connected. Heavy alcohol consumption can cause more inflammation that may agitate rheumatoid arthritis and gout.9
Especially for those who already struggle with joint pain and arthritis, alcohol may make matters worse, but research on the topic still needs to be done.
The best way to keep these problems from happening to you is to get alcohol abuse treatment
sooner rather than later.
The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Central Nervous System
While the effects of drug abuse on the skeletal system can be detrimental to a person’s health, the damage doesn’t stop there. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal cord, and prolonged drug and alcohol use can negatively impact them both. These effects of drug abuse on the central nervous system can be long-lasting and sometimes permanent.
Drug Abuse and the Brain
The brain is a complex system made up of billions of nerve cells called neurons that communicate with each other using electrical and chemical signals. While substance abuse can lead to immediate chemical changes that result in a variety of desired effects for the user, there is a lot of damage going on as well. The effects of long-term drug use on the brain
can lead to serious conditions that are sometimes irreversible.
One of the biggest effects of drug abuse on the brain is addiction. With continued use, the brain rewires itself and actually becomes dependent on the substance that is being abused. This neural change is why it is so hard to quit without professional help like our substance abuse treatment center in Pompano
. Cocaine addiction has also been shown to prematurely age the brain, as cocaine addicts lose twice the brain volume each year compared to non-drug users.10
Drugs such as meth are shown to reduce the number of dopamine receptors within the brain and can even alter the structure of neurons in several regions of the brain that can hurt a person’s decision-making, judgment, learning, and memory skills.11
The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Spine & Spinal Cord
Along with damaging the skeletal system and the brain, there can also be several negative effects of drugs on the spine and spinal cord. Frequent drug use is often associated with bad posture, especially in the head and neck.12
One possible reason for this is that drug abuse can weaken the muscles and bone in and around the spine. While bad posture may seem more visually unappealing than dangerous, it can lead to some long-term health consequences. Along with bad posture, the effects of drug abuse on the spine and spinal cord can include dangerous spinal infections in IV drug users.13
Treating the Effects of Drug Abuse on the Body and Mind
Many people are not aware of how serious these problems can be before it is too late. Instead of letting the effects of drug abuse on the skeletal and central nervous system destroy your body, quit now.